Advertisement
Advances in Pediatrics

Benefits and Risks of Breastfeeding

      In 2005, the American Academy of Pediatrics extended their position concerning the superiority of human milk for feeding human infants and the reasons for encouraging breastfeeding [
      • Gartner L.M.
      • Morton J.
      • Lawrence R.A.
      • et al.
      American Academy of Pediatrics section on breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk.
      ]. Yet questions have been raised whether the benefits of breastfeeding pertain to populations in the industrialized world as well as to those societies in which sanitation is marginal. In the industrialized world, the risks associated with breastfeeding are often better publicized than the benefits. Because of these and certain other concerns, the evidence concerning the benefits and risks of breastfeeding is reviewed. In this article, the authors discuss why the benefits outweigh the risks in the vast majority of cases, how some risks can be minimized or prevented, what conditions preclude breastfeeding, how this information can be clinically applied, and how research might improve understanding of the benefits and risks involved in this key biologic process.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Advances in Pediatrics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Gartner L.M.
        • Morton J.
        • Lawrence R.A.
        • et al.
        American Academy of Pediatrics section on breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 115: 496-506
        • Goldman A.S.
        • Chheda S.
        • Garofalo R.
        Evolution of immunologic functions of the mammary gland and the postnatal development of immunity.
        Pediatr Res. 1998; 43: 155-162
        • Goldman A.S.
        Evolution of the mammary gland defense system and ontogeny of the immune system. Comparative and evolutionary aspects of mammary gland development and function.
        J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2002; 7: 277-289
        • Kunz C.
        • Rodriguez-Palmero M.
        • Koletzko B.
        • et al.
        Nutritional and biochemical properties of human milk. Part I: general aspects, proteins, and carbohydrates.
        Clin Perinatol. 1999; 26: 307-333
        • Rodriguez-Palmero M.
        • Koletzko B.
        • Kunz C.
        • et al.
        Nutritional and biochemical properties of human milk. Part II: lipids, micronutrients, and bioactive factors.
        Clin Perinatol. 1999; 26: 335-359
      1. Goldman AS, Chheda S, Keeney SE, et al. Immunology of human milk and host immunity. In: Polin RA, Fox WW, et al, editors. Fetal and neonatal physiology. 4th edition. Philadelphia: Saunders, in press.

        • Wirt D.P.
        • Adkins L.T.
        • Palkowetz K.H.
        • et al.
        Activated and memory T lymphocytes in human milk.
        Cytometry. 1992; 13: 282-290
        • Keeney S.E.
        • Schmalstieg F.C.
        • Palkowetz K.H.
        • et al.
        Activated neutrophils and neutrophil activators in human milk. Increased expression of CD11b and decreased expression of L-selectin.
        J Leukoc Biol. 1993; 54: 97-104
        • Marild S.
        • Hansson S.
        • Jodal U.
        • et al.
        Protective effects of breastfeeding against urinary tract infection.
        Acta Paediatr. 2004; 93: 164-168
        • Hylander M.A.
        • Strobino D.M.
        • Dhanireddy R.
        Human milk feedings and infection among very low birth weight infants.
        Pediatrics. 1998; 102: E38
        • Dewey K.G.
        • Heinig M.J.
        • Nommsen-Rivers L.A.
        Differences in morbidity between breast-fed and formula-fed infants.
        J Pediatr. 1995; 126: 696-702
        • Lucas A.
        • Cole T.J.
        Breast milk and neonatal necrotising enterocolitis.
        Lancet. 1990; 336: 1519-1523
        • Ivarsson A.
        • Hernell O.
        • Stenlund H.
        • et al.
        Breast-feeding protects against celiac disease.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 75: 914-921
        • Kramer M.S.
        • Chalmers B.
        • Hodnett E.D.
        • et al.
        PROBIT Study Group (Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial). Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT): a randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus.
        JAMA. 2001; 285: 413-420
        • Duncan B.
        • Ey J.
        • Holberg C.J.
        • et al.
        Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 months protects against otitis media.
        Pediatrics. 1993; 91: 867-872
        • Schanler R.J.
        • Lau C.
        • Hurst N.M.
        • et al.
        Randomized trial of donor human milk versus preterm formula as substitutes for mothers' own milk in the feeding of extremely premature infants.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 116: 400-406
        • Chen A.
        • Rogan W.J.
        Breastfeeding and the risk of postneonatal death in the United States.
        Pediatrics. 2004; 113: e435-e439
        • Jones G.
        • Steketee R.W.
        • Black R.E.
        • et al.
        Bellagio Child Survival Study Group. How many child deaths can we prevent this year?.
        Lancet. 2003; 362: 65-71
        • Bahl R.
        • Frost C.
        • Kirkwood B.R.
        • et al.
        Infant feeding patterns and risks of death and hospitalization in the first half of infancy: multicentre cohort study.
        Bull World Health Org. 2005; 83: 418-426
        • Edmond K.M.
        • Zandoh C.
        • Quigley M.A.
        • et al.
        Delayed breastfeeding initiation increases risk of neonatal mortality.
        Pediatrics. 2006; 117: e380-e386
        • McVea K.L.
        • Turner P.D.
        • Peppler D.K.
        The role of breastfeeding in sudden infant death syndrome.
        J Hum Lact. 2000; 16: 13-20
        • American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
        The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to consider in reducing risk.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 116: 1245-1255
        • Wright A.L.
        • Holberg C.J.
        • Taussig L.M.
        • et al.
        Factors influencing the relation of infant feeding to asthma and recurrent wheeze in childhood.
        Thorax. 2001; 56: 192-197
        • Corrao G.
        • Tragnone A.
        • Caprilli R.
        • et al.
        Risk of inflammatory bowel disease attributable to smoking, oral contraception and breastfeeding in Italy: a nationwide case-control study. Cooperative Investigators of the Italian Group for the Study of the Colon and the Rectum (GISC).
        Int J Epidemiol. 1998; 27: 397-404
        • Bener A.
        • Denic S.
        • Galadari S.
        Longer breast-feeding and protection against childhood leukaemia and lymphomas.
        Eur J Cancer. 2001; 37: 234-238
        • Davis M.K.
        Review of the evidence for an association between infant feeding and childhood cancer.
        Int J Cancer. 1998; : 29-33
        • Sadauskaite-Kuehne V.
        • Ludvigsson J.
        • Padaiga Z.
        • et al.
        Longer breastfeeding is an independent protective factor against development of type 1 diabetes mellitus in childhood.
        Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2004; 20: 150-157
        • Pettitt D.J.
        • Forman M.R.
        • Hanson R.L.
        • et al.
        Breastfeeding and the incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians.
        Lancet. 1997; 350: 166-168
        • Kull I.
        • Almqvist C.
        • Lilja G.
        • et al.
        Breast-feeding reduces the risk of asthma during the first 4 years of life.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004; 114: 755-760
        • Hediger M.L.
        • Overpeck M.D.
        • Kuczmarski R.J.
        • et al.
        Association between infant breastfeeding and overweight in young children.
        JAMA. 2001; 285: 2453-2460
        • Drane D.L.
        • Logemann J.A.
        A critical evaluation of the evidence on the association between type of infant feeding and cognitive development.
        Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2000; 14: 349-356
        • Virtanen S.M.
        • Knip M.
        Nutritional risk predictors of beta cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes at a young age.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78: 1053-1067
        • Villalpando S.
        • Lopez-Alarcon M.
        Growth faltering is prevented by breast-feeding in underprivileged infants in Mexico City.
        J Nutr. 2000; 130: 546-552
        • Kramer M.S.
        • Guo T.
        • Platt R.W.
        • et al.
        PROBIT Study Group. Breastfeeding and infant growth: biology or bias?.
        Pediatrics. 2002; 110: 343-347
        • von Kries R.
        • Koletzko B.
        • Sauerwald T.
        • et al.
        Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study.
        BMJ. 1999; 319: 147-150
        • Grummer-Strawn L.M.
        • Mei Z.
        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Does breastfeeding protect against pediatric overweight? Analysis of longitudinal data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System.
        Pediatrics. 2004; 113: e81-e86
        • Owen C.G.
        • Martin R.M.
        • Whincup P.H.
        • et al.
        Effect of infant feeding on the risk of obesity across the life course: a quantitative review of published evidence.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 115: 1367-1377
        • Mortensen E.L.
        • Michaelsen K.F.
        • Sanders S.A.
        • et al.
        The association between duration of breastfeeding and adult intelligence.
        JAMA. 2002; 287: 2365-2371
        • Oddy W.H.
        • Kendall G.E.
        • Blair E.
        • et al.
        Breast feeding and cognitive development in childhood: a prospective birth cohort study.
        Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2003; 17: 81-90
        • Goldman A.S.
        Association of atopic diseases with breast-feeding: food allergens, fatty acids, and evolution.
        J Pediatr. 1999; 134: 5-7
        • Neville M.C.
        Physiology of lactation.
        Clin Perinatol. 1999; 26: 251-279
        • Manganaro R.
        • Mami C.
        • Marrone T.
        • et al.
        Incidence of dehydration and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants.
        J Pediatr. 2001; 139: 673-675
        • Lawrence R.A.
        • Lawrence R.M.
        Breastfeeding: a guide for the medical profession.
        6th edition. Elsevier Mosby, Philadephia2005
        • Gourley G.R.
        Breast-feeding, neonatal jaundice and kernicterus.
        Semin Neonatol. 2002; 7: 135-141
        • McGeary R.P.
        • Szyczew A.J.
        • Toth I.
        Biological properties and therapeutic potential of bilirubin.
        Mini Rev Med Chem. 2003; 3: 253-256
        • Tarcan A.
        • Tiker F.
        • Vatandas N.S.
        • et al.
        Weight loss and hypernatremia in breast-fed babies: frequency in neonates with non-hemolytic jaundice.
        J Paediatr Child Health. 2005; 41: 484-487
        • American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Hyperbilirubinemia
        Management of hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35 or more weeks of gestation.
        Pediatrics. 2004; 114: 297-316
        • Guise J.M.
        • Palda V.
        • Westhoff C.
        • et al.
        The effectiveness of primary care-based interventions to promote breastfeeding: systematic evidence review and meta-analysis for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
        Ann Fam Med. 2003; 1: 70-78
        • Canfield L.M.
        • Hopkinson J.M.
        • Lima A.F.
        • et al.
        Vitamin K in colostrum and mature human milk over the lactation period—a cross-sectional study.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1991; 53: 730-735
        • Lammi-Keefe C.J.
        Vitamin D and E in human milk.
        in: Jensen R.G. Handbook of milk composition. Academic Press, San Diego (CA)1995: 706-717
        • US Institute of Medicine. Subcommittee on Lactation
        Nutrition during lactation.
        National Academy Press, Washington, DC1991 (p. 153–96)
        • Kleinman R.E.
        Pediatric nutrition handbook.
        5th edition. Elk Grove Village (IL): American Academy of Pediatrics, 2004 (p. 307)
        • Hey E.
        Vitamin K–what, why, and when.
        Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003; 88: F80-F83
        • Bentley R.
        • Meganathan R.
        Biosynthesis of vitamin K (menaquinone) in bacteria.
        Microbiol Rev. 1982; 46: 241-280
        • Specker B.L.
        • Tsang R.C.
        Cyclic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations paralleling sunshine exposure in exclusively breast-fed infants.
        J Pediatr. 1987; 110: 744-747
        • Gartner L.M.
        • Greer F.R.
        • American Academy of Pediatrics
        • et al.
        Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency: new guidelines for vitamin D intake.
        Pediatrics. 2003; 111: 908-910
        • Liu P.T.
        • Stenger S.
        • Li H.
        • et al.
        Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response.
        Science. 2006; 311: 1770-1773
        • Hollis B.W.
        • Wagner C.L.
        Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy: an ongoing epidemic.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84: 273
        • Allen L.H.
        • Rosado J.L.
        • Casterline J.E.
        • et al.
        Vitamin B-12 deficiency and malabsorption are highly prevalent in rural Mexican communities.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1995; 62: 1013-1019
        • Wardinsky T.D.
        • Montes R.G.
        • Friederich R.L.
        • et al.
        Vitamin B12 deficiency associated with low breast-milk vitamin B12 concentration in an infant following maternal gastric bypass surgery.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995; 149: 1281-1284
        • Prasad A.S.
        Biochemistry of Zinc.
        Plenum Press, New York1993 (p. 219–58)
        • Sandstrom B.
        • Cederblad A.
        • Lonnerdal B.
        Zinc absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas.
        Am J Dis Child. 1983; 137: 726-729
        • Umeta M.
        • West C.E.
        • Verhoef H.
        • et al.
        Factors associated with stunting in infants aged 5-11 months in the Dodota-Sire District, rural Ethiopia.
        J Nutr. 2003; 133: 1064-1069
        • Krebs N.F.
        • Westcott J.
        Zinc and breastfed infants: if and when is there a risk of deficiency?.
        Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002; 503: 69-75
        • Etcheverry P.
        • Miller D.D.
        • Glahn R.P.
        A low-molecular-weight factor in human milk whey promotes iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.
        J Nutr. 2004; 134: 93-98
        • Butte N.
        • Cobb K.
        • Dwyer J.
        • et al.
        American Dietitic Association. Gerber Products Company. The Start Healthy Feeding Guidelines for Infants and Toddlers.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2004; 104: 442-454
        • Innis S.M.
        Polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk: an essential role in infant development.
        Adv Exp Med Biol. 2004; 554: 27-43
        • Fleith M.
        • Clandinin M.T.
        Dietary PUFA for preterm and term infants: review of clinical studies.
        Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2005; 45: 205-229
        • Zmora E.
        • Gorodischer R.
        • Bar-Ziv J.
        Multiple nutritional deficiencies in infants from a strict vegetarian community.
        Am J Dis Child. 1979; 133: 141-144
        • Kanaka C.
        • Schütz B.
        • Zuppinger K.A.
        Risks of alternative nutrition in infancy: a case report of severe iodine and carnitine deficiency.
        Eur J Pediatr. 1992; 151: 786-788
        • Allen L.H.
        Multiple micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation: an overview.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81: 1206S-1212S
        • Domellof M.
        • Lonnerdal B.
        • Dewey K.G.
        • et al.
        Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in breast milk are independent of maternal mineral status.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 79: 111-115
        • Schanler R.J.
        • Hurst N.M.
        • Lau C.
        The use of human milk and breastfeeding in premature infants.
        Clin Perinatol. 1999; 26: 379-398
        • Hanson L.
        • Silfverdal S.A.
        • Stromback L.
        • et al.
        The immunological role of breast feeding.
        Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2001; 12: 15-19
        • Lucey D.R.
        • Clerici M.
        • Shearer G.M.
        Type 1 and type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases.
        Clin Microbiol Rev. 1996; 9: 532-562
        • Kramer M.S.
        • Guo T.
        • Platt R.W.
        • et al.
        Does previous infection protect against atopic eczema and recurrent wheeze in infancy?.
        Clin Exp Allergy. 2004; 34: 753-756
        • Hill A.
        • Ward S.
        • Deino A.
        • et al.
        Earliest.
        Homo. 1992; 355: 719-722
        • Templeton A.R.
        Haplotype trees and modern human origins.
        Am J Phys Anthropol. 2005; 355: 33-59
        • Ulshen M.H.
        Carbohydrate absorption and malabsorption.
        in: Walker W.A. Watkins J.B. Duggan C. Nutrition in pediatrics. Basic science and clinical applications. 3rd edition. BC Decker Inc., Hamilton (ON)2003: 811-829
        • Goldman A.S.
        • Kantak A.G.
        • Ham P.
        Food hypersensitivities: historical perspectives, diagnosis, and clinical presentations.
        in: Brostoff J. Challacome S.J. Food allergy and intolerance. 2nd edition. Saunders, London2002: 809-815
        • Hattevig G.
        • Kjellman B.
        • Sigurs N.
        • et al.
        Effect of maternal avoidance of eggs, cow's milk, and fish during lactation upon allergic manifestations in infants.
        Clin Exp Allergy. 1989; 19: 27-32
        • Sigurs N.
        • Hattevig G.
        • Kjellman B.
        Maternal avoidance of eggs, cow's milk, and fish during lactation: effect upon allergic manifestations, skin prick tests, and specific IgE antibodies in children at age 4 years.
        Pediatrics. 1992; 89: 735-739
        • Kilshaw P.J.
        • Cant A.J.
        The passage of maternal dietary proteins in human breast milk.
        Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1984; 75: 8-15
        • Host A.
        • Husby S.
        • Hanen L.G.
        • et al.
        Bovine β-lactoglobulin in human milk from atopic and non-atopic mothers. Relationship to maternal intake of homogenized and unhomogenized milk.
        Clin Exp Allergy. 1990; 20: 383-387
        • Conti A.
        • Giuffrida M.G.
        • Napolitano L.
        • et al.
        Identification of the human beta-casein C-terminal fragments that specifically bind to purified antibodies to bovine beta-lactoglobulin.
        J Nutr Biochem. 2000; 11: 332-337
        • Duchén K.
        • Yu G.
        • Björksten B.
        Atopic sensitization during the first year of life in relation to long chain polyunsaturated acids in human milk.
        Pediatr Res. 1998; 44: 478-484
        • Wijga A.
        • Houwelingen A.C.
        • Smit H.A.
        • et al.
        The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study. Fatty acids in breast milk of allergic and non-allergic mothers: The PIAMA birth cohort study.
        Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2003; 14: 156-162
        • Stoney R.M.
        • Woods R.K.
        • Hosking C.S.
        • et al.
        Maternal breast milk long-chain n-3 fatty acids are associated with increased risk of atopy in breastfed infants.
        Clin Exp Allergy. 2004; 34: 194-200
        • Bjorneboe A.
        • Soyland E.
        • Bjorneboe G.E.
        • et al.
        Effect of dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.
        Br J Dermatol. 1987; 117: 463-469
        • Biagi P.L.
        • Bordoni A.
        • Masi M.
        • et al.
        A long-term study on the use of evening primrose oil (Efamol) in atopic children.
        Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1988; 14: 285-290
        • Bottcher M.F.
        • Jenmalm M.C.
        • Bjorksten B.
        • et al.
        Chemoattractant factors in breast milk from allergic and nonallergic mothers.
        Pediatr Res. 2000; 47: 592-597
        • Cooper G.S.
        • Stroehla B.C.
        The epidemiology of autoimmune diseases.
        Autoimmun Rev. 2003; 2: 119-125
        • Hill J.A.
        • Southwood S.
        • Sette A.
        • et al.
        Cutting edge: the conversion of arginine to citrulline allows for a high-affinity peptide interaction with the rheumatoid arthritis-associated HLA-DRB10401 MHC class II molecule.
        J Immunol. 2003; 171: 538-541
        • Jacobsson L.T.
        • Jacobsson M.E.
        • Askling J.
        • et al.
        Perinatal characteristics and risk of rheumatoid arthritis.
        BMJ. 2003; 326: 1068-1069
        • Hahn B.H.
        Systemic lupus erythematosus.
        in: Kasper D.L. Fauci A.S. Longo D.L. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. McGraw-Hill, New York2005: 1960-1967
        • Galli M.
        • Barbui T.
        Antiphospholipid syndrome: definition and treatment.
        Semin Thromb Hemost. 2003; 29: 195-204
        • Buyon J.P.
        • Clancy R.M.
        Neonatal lupus: review of proposed pathogenesis and clinical data from the US-based research registry for neonatal lupus.
        Autoimmunity. 2003; 36: 41-50
        • Vassilev T.L.
        • Veleva K.V.
        Natural polyreactive IgA and IgM autoantibodies in human colostrum.
        Scand J Immunol. 1996; 44: 535-539
        • Shuster A.M.
        • Gololobov G.V.
        • Kvashuk O.A.
        • et al.
        DNA hydrolyzing autoantibodies.
        Science. 1992; 256: 665-667
        • Askanase A.D.
        • Miranda-Carus M.E.
        • Tang X.
        • et al.
        The presence of IgG antibodies reactive with components of the SSA/Ro-SSB/La complex in human breast milk: implications in neonatal lupus.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2002; 46: 269-271
        • Bouhlal H.
        • Latry V.
        • Requena M.
        • et al.
        Natural antibodies to CCR5 from breast milk block infection of macrophages and dendritic cells with primary R5-tropic HIV-1.
        J Immunol. 2005; 174: 7202-7209
        • Lawrence R.M.
        • Lawrence R.A.
        Breast milk and infection.
        Clin Perinatol. 2004; 31: 501-528
        • Alford C.A.
        • Britt W.J.
        Cytomegalovirus.
        in: Fields B.N. Knipe D.M. Chanock R.M. Fields virology. 2nd edition. Raven Press, New York1990: 1981-2010
        • Gambarotto K.
        • Ranger-Rogez S.
        • Aubard Y.
        • et al.
        Primary cytomegalovirus infection and pregnant women: epidemiological study on 1100 women at Limoges.
        Pathol Biol (Paris). 1997; 45: 453-461
        • Yasuda A.
        • Kimura H.
        • Hayakawa M.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of cytomegalovirus infections transmitted via breast milk in preterm infants with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.
        Pediatrics. 2003; 111: 1333-1336
        • Hill J.B.
        • Sheffield J.S.
        • Kim M.J.
        • et al.
        Risk of hepatitis B transmission in breast-fed infants of chronic hepatitis B carriers.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 99: 1049-1052
        • Mok J.
        • Pembrey L.
        • Tovo P.A.
        • et al.
        European Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Network. When does mother to child transmission of hepatitis C virus occur?.
        Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005; 90: F156-F160
        • Klein E.B.
        • Byrne T.
        • Cooper L.Z.
        Neonatal rubella in breast fed infant after postpartum maternal infection.
        J Pediatr. 1980; 97: 774-775
        • Losonsky G.A.
        • Fishaut J.M.
        • Strussenberg J.
        • et al.
        Effect of immunization against rubella on lactation products. II. Maternal-neonatal interactions.
        J Infect Dis. 1982; 145: 661-666
        • Karpas A.
        Human retroviruses in leukaemia and AIDS: reflections on their discovery, biology and epidemiology.
        Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2004; 79: 911-933
        • Tsuji Y.
        • Doi H.
        • Yamabe T.
        • et al.
        Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type-I.
        Pediatrics. 1990; 86: 11-17
        • Hino S.
        • Katamine S.
        • Miyata H.
        • et al.
        Primary prevention of HTLV-1 in Japan.
        Leukemia. 1997; 11: 57-59
        • Thiry L.
        • Sprecher-Goldberger S.
        • Jonckheer T.
        • et al.
        Isolation of AIDS virus from cell-free breast milk of three healthy virus carriers.
        Lancet. 1985; 2: 891-892
        • Vogt M.W.
        • Witt D.J.
        • Craven D.E.
        • et al.
        Isolation of HTLV-III/LAV from cervical secretions of women at risk for AIDS.
        Lancet. 1986; 1: 525-527
        • John-Stewart G.
        • Mbori-Ngacha D.
        • Ekpini R.
        • et al.
        Ghent IAS Working Group on HIV in Women and Children. Breast-feeding and transmission of HIV-1.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004; 35: 196-202
        • Nduati R.
        • John G.
        • Mbori-Ngacha D.
        • et al.
        Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial.
        JAMA. 2000; 283: 1167-1174
        • Magoni M.
        • Bassani L.
        • Okong P.
        • et al.
        Mode of infant feeding and HIV infection in children in a program for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Uganda.
        AIDS. 2005; 19: 433-437
        • Coutsoudis A.
        • Dabis F.
        • Fawzi W.
        • et al.
        Breastfeeding and HIV International Transmission Study Group. Late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 in breast-fed children: an individual patient data meta-analysis.
        J Infect Dis. 2004; 189: 2154-2166
        • John G.C.
        • Nduati R.W.
        • Mdori-Ngacha D.
        • et al.
        Correlates of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission: association with maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA load, genital DNA-1 shedding and breast infections.
        J Infect Dis. 2001; 183: 206-212
        • Newell M.L.
        • Coovadia H.
        • Cortina-Borja M.
        • et al.
        Ghent International AIDS Society (IAS) Working Group on HIV Infection in Women and Children. Mortality of infected and uninfected infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a pooled analysis.
        Lancet. 2004; 364: 1236-1243
        • Anonymous
        Effect of breastfeeding on infant and child mortality due to infectious diseases in less developed countries: a pooled analysis. WHO Collaborative Study Team on the role of breastfeeding on the prevention of infant mortality.
        Lancet. 2000; 355: 451-455
        • Queenan J.T.
        Contraception and breastfeeding.
        Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 47: 734-739
        • Iliff P.J.
        • Piwoz E.G.
        • Tavengwa N.V.
        • et al.
        ZVITAMBO study group. Early exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of postnatal HIV-1 transmission and increases HIV-free survival.
        AIDS. 2005; 19: 699-708
        • Wang H.
        • Ye X.
        • Ng T.B.
        First demonstration of an inhibitory activity of milk proteins against human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and the effect of succinylation.
        Life Sci. 2000; 67: 2745-2752
        • Sabbaj S.
        • Edwards B.H.
        • Ghosh M.K.
        • et al.
        Human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in human breast milk.
        J Virol. 2002; 76: 7365-7373
        • Viveros-Rogel M.
        • Soto-Ramirez L.
        • Chaturvedi P.
        • et al.
        Inhibition of HIV-1 infection in vitro by human milk sulfated glycolipids and glycosaminoglycans.
        Adv Exp Med Biol. 2004; 554: 481-487
        • Naarding M.A.
        • Ludwig I.S.
        • Groot F.
        • et al.
        Lewis X component in human milk binds DC-SIGN and inhibits HIV-1 transfer to CD4+ T lymphocytes.
        J Clin Invest. 2005; 115: 3256-3264
        • Savage D.F.
        • Lhotska L.
        • WHO
        • et al.
        Recommendations on feeding infants of HIV positive mothers. WHO, UNICEF, UNAIDS guidelines.
        Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000; 478: 225-230
        • Hale T.W.
        Maternal medications during breastfeeding.
        Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 47: 696-711
        • McNamara P.J.
        • Abbassi M.
        Neonatal exposure to drugs in breast milk.
        Pharm Res. 2004; 21: 555-566
        • Mennella J.A.
        • Pepino M.Y.
        • Teff K.L.
        Acute alcohol consumption disrupts the hormonal milieu of lactating women.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90: 1979-1985
        • Hopkinson J.M.
        • Schanler R.J.
        • Fraley J.K.
        • et al.
        Milk production by mothers of premature infants: influence of cigarette smoking.
        Pediatrics. 1992; 90: 934-938
        • Batstra L.
        • Neeleman J.
        • Hadders-Algra M.
        Can breast feeding modify the adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the child's cognitive development?.
        J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003; 57: 403-404
        • Cornelius M.D.
        • Day N.L.
        The effects of tobacco use during and after pregnancy on exposed children.
        Alcohol Res Health. 2000; 24: 242-249
        • Jin C.
        • Rossignol A.M.
        Effects of passive smoking on respiratory illness from birth to age eighteen months, in Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
        J Pediatr. 1993; 123: 553-558
        • American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs
        The transfer of drugs and chemicals into human milk.
        Pediatrics. 2001; 108: 776-789
        • Howard C.R.
        • Lawrence R.A.
        Drugs and breastfeeding.
        Clin Perinatol. 1999; 26: 447-478
      2. United States National Library of Medicine. Toxnet. Toxicology data network. Drugs and lactation data base (LactMed). Available at: http://toxnet.nlm.nim.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmigen?LACT. Accessed May 1, 2006.

        • Rogan W.J.
        Pollutants in breast milk.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996; 150: 981-990
        • Fisher J.
        • Mahle D.
        • Bankston L.
        • et al.
        Lactational transfer of volatile chemicals in breast milk.
        Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1997; 58: 425-431
        • Schecter A.
        • Pavuk M.
        • Papke O.
        • et al.
        Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. mothers' milk.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2003; 111: 1723-1729
        • Guvenius D.M.
        • Aronsson A.
        • Ekman-Ordeberg G.
        • et al.
        Human prenatal and postnatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorobiphenylols, and pentachlorophenol.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2003; 111: 1235-1241
        • LaKind J.S.
        • Amina Wilkins A.
        • Berlin Jr., C.M.
        Environmental chemicals in human milk: a review of levels, infant exposures and health, and guidance for future research.
        Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004; 198: 184-208
        • Rogan W.J.
        • Gladen B.C.
        Breast-feeding and cognitive development.
        Early Hum Dev. 1993; 31: 181-193
        • LaKind J.S.
        • Berlin C.M.
        • Naiman D.Q.
        Infant exposure to chemicals in breast milk in the United States: what we need to learn from a breast milk monitoring program.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2001; 109: 75-88
        • Oddy W.H.
        • Halonen M.
        • Martinez F.D.
        • et al.
        TGF-beta in human milk is associated with wheeze in infancy.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003; 112: 723-728
        • Letterio J.J.
        • Geiser A.G.
        • Kulkarni A.B.
        • et al.
        Maternal rescue of transforming growth factor-β1 null mice.
        Science. 1994; 264: 1936-1938
        • Morrow A.L.
        • Ruiz-Palacios G.M.
        • Altaye M.
        • et al.
        Human milk oligosaccharides are associated with protection against diarrhea in breast-fed infants.
        J Pediatr. 2004; 145: 297-303
        • Fituch C.C.
        • Palkowetz K.H.
        • Goldman A.S.
        • et al.
        Concentrations of IL-10 in preterm human milk and in milk from mothers of infants with necrotizing enterocolitis.
        Acta Paediatr. 2004; 93: 1496-1500
        • Berg D.J.
        • Davidson N.
        • Kuhn R.
        • et al.
        Enterocolitis and colon cancer in interleukin-10-deficient mice are associated with aberrant cytokine production and CD4 (+)TH1-like responses.
        J Clin Invest. 1996; 98: 1010-1020
        • Savilahti E.
        • Launiala K.
        • Kuitunen P.
        Congenital lactase deficiency. A clinical study on 16 patients.
        Arch Dis Child. 1983; 58: 246-252
        • Wright E.M.
        I. Glucose galactose malabsorption.
        Am J Physiol. 1998; 275: G879-G882
        • Bosch A.M.
        • Ijlst L.
        • Oostheim W.
        • et al.
        Identification of novel mutations in classical galactosemia.
        Hum Mutat. 2005; 25: 502
        • Gitzelmann R.
        • Steinmann B.
        • Mitchell B.
        • et al.
        Uridine diphosphate galactose 4'-epimerase deficiency. IV. Report of eight cases in three families.
        Helv Paediatr Acta. 1977; 31: 441-452
        • Holden H.M.
        • Thoden J.B.
        • Timson D.J.
        • et al.
        Galactokinase: structure, function and role in type II galactosemia.
        Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004; 61: 2471-2484
        • Holton J.B.
        • Walter J.H.
        • Tyfield L.A.
        Galactosemia.
        in: Scriver C.R. Beaudet A.L. Sly W.S. The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease. 8th edition. McGraw Hill, New York2001: 1553-1587
        • Bosch A.M.
        • Bakker H.D.
        • Wenniger-Prick L.J.
        • et al.
        High tolerance for oral galactose in classical galactosaemia: dietary implications.
        Arch Dis Child. 2004; 89: 1034-1036
        • Giltay J.C.
        • van Hoef A.M.
        • de Weger R.
        • et al.
        [Molecular genetic aspects of phenylketonuria (PKU)].
        Tijdschr Kindergeneeskd. 1991; 59 ([in Dutch]): 77-80
        • McCabe L.
        • Ernest A.E.
        • Neifert M.R.
        • et al.
        The management of breast feeding among infants with phenylketonuria.
        J Inherit Metab Dis. 1989; 12: 467-474
        • Muller S.M.
        • Ege M.
        • Pottharst A.
        • et al.
        Transplacentally acquired maternal T lymphocytes in severe combined immunodeficiency: a study of 121 patients.
        Blood. 2001; 98: 1847-1851
        • Beer A.E.
        • Billingham R.E.
        Immunologic benefits and hazards of milk in maternal-perinatal relationship.
        Ann Intern Med. 1975; 83: 865-871
        • Mazmanian S.K.
        • Liu C.H.
        • Tzianabos A.O.
        • et al.
        An immunomodulatory molecule of symbiotic bacteria directs maturation of the host immune system.
        Cell. 2005; 122: 107-118
        • Gaillard P.
        • Fowler M.G.
        • Dabis F.
        • et al.
        Ghent IAS Working Group on HIV in Women and Children. Use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV-1 transmission through breast-feeding: from animal studies to randomized clinical trials.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004; 35: 178-187
        • Coutsoudis A.
        Breastfeeding and the HIV positive mother: the debate continues.
        Early Hum Dev. 2005; 81: 87-93
        • Baron S.
        • Tursk D.
        • Leplat C.
        • et al.
        Environmental risk factors in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease: a population based case control study.
        Gut. 2005; 54: 357-363
        • Klement E.
        • Cohen R.V.
        • Boxman J.
        • et al.
        Breastfeeding and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review with meta-analysis.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 1342-1352
        • Goldman A.S.
        • Garza C.
        • Schanler R.J.
        • et al.
        Molecular forms of lactoferrin in stool and urine from infants fed human milk.
        Pediatr Res. 1990; 27: 252-255
        • Daniels M.C.
        • Adair L.S.
        Breast-feeding influences cognitive development in Filipino children.
        J Nutr. 2005; 135: 2589-2595
        • Weimer J.P.
        The economic benefits of breastfeeding: a review and analysis. ERS Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report No. 13.
        U.S. Department of Agriculture. Economic Research Service, Washington, DC2001