Advertisement
Advances in Pediatrics

Pediatric Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy: An Update

  • Nizar F. Maraqa
    Affiliations
    Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Florida- Jacksonville, 653-1 West 8th Street, LRC-3, Pediatrics, L-13, Jacksonville, FL 32209, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Mobeen H. Rathore
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. 653-1 West 8th Street, LRC-3, Pediatrics, L-13, Jacksonville, FL 32209.
    Affiliations
    Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Florida- Jacksonville, 653-1 West 8th Street, LRC-3, Pediatrics, L-13, Jacksonville, FL 32209, USA

    Wolfson Children’s Hospital, 800 Prudential Drive, Jacksonville, FL 32207, USA
    Search for articles by this author
      Many terms have been used to describe the delivery of antimicrobials (antiviral, antifungal, or antibacterial agents) to patients in the outpatient setting through the parenteral (ie, intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous) route, including outpatient intravenous antimicrobial therapy (OPIVAT), community-based parenteral anti-infective therapy (CoPAT), hospital at home, home intravenous antimicrobial therapy (HIAT), and outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) [
      • Tice A.D.
      • Rehm S.J.
      • Dalovisio J.R.
      • et al.
      Practice guidelines for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy.
      ,
      • Steinmetz D.
      • Berkovits E.
      • Edelstein H.
      • et al.
      Home intravenous antibiotic therapy programme, 1999.
      ,
      • Williams D.N.
      • Rehm S.J.
      • Tice A.D.
      • et al.
      Practice guidelines for community-based parenteral anti-infective therapy.
      ,
      • Huminer D.
      • Bishara J.
      • Pitlik S.
      Home intravenous antibiotic therapy with infective endocarditis.
      ,
      • Esposito S.
      Parenteral cephalosporin therapy in ambulatory care: advantages and disadvantages.
      ,
      • Tice A.
      Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy as an alternative to hospitalization.
      ]. The latter term, OPAT, is the most widely used in the United States. It broadly refers to the parenteral administration of at least two doses of an antimicrobial to a patient on two different days without an intervening hospitalization [
      • Tice A.D.
      • Rehm S.J.
      • Dalovisio J.R.
      • et al.
      Practice guidelines for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy.
      ].
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Advances in Pediatrics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Tice A.D.
        • Rehm S.J.
        • Dalovisio J.R.
        • et al.
        Practice guidelines for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2004; 38: 1651-1672
        • Steinmetz D.
        • Berkovits E.
        • Edelstein H.
        • et al.
        Home intravenous antibiotic therapy programme, 1999.
        J Infect. 2001; 42: 176-180
        • Williams D.N.
        • Rehm S.J.
        • Tice A.D.
        • et al.
        Practice guidelines for community-based parenteral anti-infective therapy.
        Clin Infect Dis. 1997; 25: 787-801
        • Huminer D.
        • Bishara J.
        • Pitlik S.
        Home intravenous antibiotic therapy with infective endocarditis.
        Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999; 18: 330-334
        • Esposito S.
        Parenteral cephalosporin therapy in ambulatory care: advantages and disadvantages.
        Drugs. 2000; 59: 19-28
        • Tice A.
        Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy as an alternative to hospitalization.
        Int J Clin Pract. 1998; 95: S4-8
        • Slavik R.S.
        • Jewessen P.J.
        Selecting antibacterials for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations.
        Clin Pharmacokinet. 2003; 42: 793-817
        • Rucker R.W.
        • Harrison G.M.
        Outpatient intravenous medications in the management of cystic fibrosis.
        Pediatrics. 1974; 54: 358-360
        • Antoniskis A.
        • Anderson B.C.
        • Van Volkinburg E.J.
        • et al.
        Feasibility of outpatient self-administration of parenteral antibiotics.
        West J Med. 1978; 128: 203-206
        • Portez D.M.
        Evolution of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy.
        Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1998; 12: 827-834
        • Brown R.B.
        • Sands M.
        Outpatient intravenous antibiotic therapy.
        Am Fam Physician. 1989; 40: 157-162
        • Leggett J.E.
        Ambulatory use of parenteral antibacterials: contemporary perspectives.
        Drugs. 2000; 59: 1-8
        • Stiver H.G.
        • Telford G.O.
        • Mossey J.M.
        • et al.
        Intravenous antibiotic therapy at home.
        Ann Intern Med. 1978; 89: 690-693
        • Gilchrist M.
        • Franklin B.D.
        • Patel J.P.
        An outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) map to identify risks associated with an OPAT service.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008; 62: 177-183
        • Dalovisio J.R.
        • Juneau J.
        • Baumgarten K.
        • et al.
        Financial impact of a home intravenous antibiotics program on a Medicare managed care program.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2000; 30: 639-642
        • Williams D.N.
        • Bosch D.
        • Boots J.
        • et al.
        Safety, efficacy and cost savings in an outpatient intravenous antibiotic program.
        Clin Ther. 1993; 15: 169-179
        • Matthews P.C.
        • Conlon C.P.
        • Berendt A.R.
        • et al.
        Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT): is it safe for selected patients to self-administer at home? A retrospective analysis of a large cohort over 13 years.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007; 60: 356-362
        • Goodfellow A.F.
        • Wai A.O.
        • Frighetto L.
        • et al.
        Quality-of-life assessment in an outpatient parenteral antibiotic program.
        Ann Pharmacother. 2002; 36: 1851-1855
        • Parker S.E.
        • Nathwani D.
        • O’Reilly D.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of the impact of non-inpatient i.v. antibiotic treatment for acute infections on the hospital, primary care services and the patient.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998; 42: 373-380
        • Gomez M.M.
        • Alvarez A.M.
        • Rathore M.H.
        Quality of life in pediatric outpatient antibiotic therapy [abstract].
        Pediatr Res. 2001; 49: 126
        • Dagan R.
        • Einhorn M.
        A program of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy for serious pediatric bacterial infections.
        Rev Infect Dis. 1991; 13: S152-S155
        • Tice A.D.
        Handbook of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy for infectious diseases.
        The Curry Rockefeller Group, LLC, Tarrytown (NY)2006
        • Tice A.D.
        An office model of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy.
        Rev Infect Dis. 1991; 13: S184-188
        • Tice A.D.
        Alternate site infusion: the physician-directed office-based model.
        J Intraven Nurs. 1996; 19: 188-193
        • Jeejeebhoy K.N.
        • Zohrab W.J.
        • Langer B.
        • et al.
        Total parenteral nutrition at home for 23 months, without complication, and with good rehabilitation.
        Gastroenterology. 1973; 65: 811-820
        • Morales J.O.
        • Von Behren L.
        Secondary bacterial infections in HIV-infected patients: an alternative ambulatory outpatient treatment utilizing intravenous cefotaxime.
        Am J Med. 1994; 97: 9-13
        • Mortlock N.J.
        • Schleis T.
        Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy technology.
        Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1998; 12: 861-878
      1. Kunkel MJ, Tice AD, OPTIVA Study Group. Serious adverse events in outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy: a prospective multicenter study [abstract 132]. In Program and abstracts of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (San Francisco), Alexandria Virginia: Infectious Diseases Society of America, 1995.

        • Gomez M.
        • Maraqa N.
        • Alvarez A.
        • et al.
        Complications of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy in childhood.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001; 20: 541-543
        • Schultz T.R.
        • Durning S.
        • Niewinski M.
        • et al.
        A multidisciplinary approach to vascular access in children.
        J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2006; 11: 254-256
      2. American Academy of Home Care Physicians. Home Care Credentialing Examination Information. Available at: http://www.aahcp.org/training.shtml. Accessed October 22, 2009.

        • Infusion Nurses Society
        Infusion nursing standards of practice.
        J Infus Nurs. 2006; 29: S1-92
      3. Infusion Nurses Certification Corporation Web Site. Available at: http://incc1.i4a.com/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=1. Accessed October 17, 2009.

        • American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
        ASHP guidelines on the pharmacist’s role in home care.
        Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000; 57: 1252-1257
        • American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)
        ASHP statement on the pharmacist’s role with respect to drug delivery systems and administration devices.
        Am J Hosp Pharm. 1993; 50: 1724-1725
        • Tice A.D.
        Bloodborne pathogen exposure and recommendations for management.
        J Infus Nurs. 2002; 25: S5-9
        • Kaley J.
        • Berendt A.R.
        • Snelling M.J.
        • et al.
        Safe intravenous antibiotic therapy at home: experience of a UK based programme.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 1996; 37: 1023-1029
        • Nolet B.R.
        Patient selection in outpatient antimicrobial therapy.
        Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1998; 12: 835-847
        • Brown R.B.
        Selection and training of patients for outpatient intravenous antibiotic therapy.
        Rev Infect Dis. 1991; 13: S147-S151
        • Chung M.
        • Akahoshi M.
        Reducing home nursing visit costs using a remote access infusion pump system.
        J Intraven Nurs. 1999; 22: 309-314
        • DeMaio J.
        • Schwartz L.
        • Cooley P.
        • et al.
        The application of telemedicine technology to a directly observed therapy program for tuberculosis: a pilot project.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2001; 33: 2082-2084
        • Maraqa N.
        • Gomez M.
        • Rathore M.H.
        Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy in osteoarticular infections in children.
        J Pediatr Orthop. 2002; 22: 506-510
        • Goldenberg R.I.
        • Portez D.M.
        • Eron L.J.
        • et al.
        Intravenous antibiotic therapy in ambulatory pediatric patients.
        Pediatr Infect Dis. 1984; 3: 514-517
        • Gutierrez K.
        Continuation of antibiotic therapy for serious bacterial infections outside of the hospital.
        Pediatr Ann. 1996; 25: 639-645
        • Leaver J.
        • Radivan F.
        • Patel L.
        • et al.
        Home intravenous antibiotic therapy: practical aspects in children.
        J R Soc Med. 1997; 90: 26-33
        • Kinsey S.E.
        Experience with teicoplanin in non-inpatient therapy in children with central line infections.
        Eur J Haematol. 1998; 62: S11-14
        • Shemesh E.
        • Yaniv I.
        • Drucker M.
        • et al.
        Home intravenous antibiotic treatment for febrile episodes in immune-compromised pediatric patients.
        Med Pediatr Oncol. 1998; 30: 95-100
        • Dagan R.
        • Fliss D.M.
        • Einhorn M.
        • et al.
        Outpatient management of chronic suppurative otitis media without cholesteatoma in children.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1992; 11: 542-546
        • Bradley J.S.
        • Ching D.K.
        • Phillips S.E.
        Outpatient therapy of serious pediatric infections with ceftriaxone.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988; 7: 160-164
        • Gilbert J.
        • Robinson T.
        • Littlewood J.M.
        Home intravenous antibiotic treatment in cystic fibrosis.
        Pediatr Pulmonol. 1988; 4: 84-89
        • Esposito S.
        • Leone S.
        • Noviello S.
        • et al.
        Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy for bone and joint infections: an Italian multicenter study.
        J Chemother. 2007; 19: 417-422
        • Zaoutis T.
        • Localio A.R.
        • Leckerman K.
        • et al.
        Prolonged intravenous therapy versus early transition to oral antimicrobial therapy for acute osteomyelitis in children.
        Pediatrics. 2009; 123: 636-642
        • Weichert S.
        • Sharland M.
        • Clarke N.M.
        • et al.
        Acute Hematogenous osteomyelitis in children: is there any evidence for how ling we should treat?.
        Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008; 21: 258-262
        • Bachur R.
        • Pagon Z.
        Success of short-course parenteral antibiotic therapy for acute osteomyelitis of childhood.
        Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2007; 46: 30-35
        • Faden D.
        • Faden H.S.
        The high rate of adverse drug events in children receiving prolonged outpatient antibiotic therapy for osteomyelitis.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009; 28: 539-541
        • Bradley J.S.
        What is the appropriate treatment course for bacterial arthritis in children?.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 48: 1211-1212
        • Hawkshead J.J.
        • Patel N.B.
        • Steele R.W.
        • et al.
        Comparative severity of pediatric osteomyelitis attributable to methicillin-resistant versus methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.
        J Pediatr Orthop. 2009; 29: 85-90
        • Deery H.
        Outpatient parenteral anti-infective therapy for skin and soft-tissue infections.
        Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1998; 12: 935-949
        • Chapman A.L.
        • Dixon S.
        • Andrews D.
        • et al.
        Clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT): a UK perspective.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009; 64: 1316-1324
        • Chary A.
        • Tice A.D.
        • Martinelli L.P.
        • et al.
        Experience of infectious diseases consultants with outpatient antimicrobial therapy: results of an Emerging Infections Network survey.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2006; 43: 1290-1295
        • Gerber J.S.
        • Coffin S.E.
        • Smathers S.A.
        • et al.
        Trends in incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children’s hospitals in the United States.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 49: 65-71
        • Johnson P.N.
        • Rapp R.P.
        • Nelson C.T.
        • et al.
        Characterization of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections in children.
        Ann Pharmacother. 2007; 41: 1361-1367
        • Gilchrist F.J.
        • Lenney W.
        A review of the home intravenous antibiotic service available to children with cystic fibrosis.
        Arch Dis Child. 2009; 94: 647
        • Balaguer A.
        • González de Dios J.
        Home antibiotic therapy for cystic fibrosis.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008; 16 (CD001917)
        • Termoz A.
        • Touzet S.
        • Bourdy S.
        • et al.
        Effectiveness of home treatment for patients with cystic fibrosis: the intravenous administration of antibiotics to treat respiratory infections.
        Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008; 43: 908-915
        • Horvais V.
        • Touzet S.
        • Francois S.
        • et al.
        Cost of home and hospital care for patients with cystic fibrosis followed up in two reference medical centers in France.
        Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2006; 22: 525-531
        • Nazer D.
        • Abdulhamid I.
        • Thomas R.
        • et al.
        Home versus hospital intravenous antibiotic therapy for acute pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis.
        Pediatr Pulmonol. 2006; 41: 744-749
        • Bradley J.S.
        Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy: management of serious infections. Part 1: Medical socioeconomic, and legal issues: pediatric considerations.
        Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1993; 28: 28-32
        • Proesmans M.
        • DeBoeck K.
        Clinical Practice: treatment of childhood empyema.
        Eur J Pediatr. 2009; 168: 639-645
        • Dimayuga E.
        • Brown R.B.
        Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy for infective endocarditis.
        Infect Dis Clin Pract. 1995; 4: 468-471
        • Andrews M.M.
        • Reyn C.F.
        Patient selection criteria and management guidelines for outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy for native valve infective endocarditis.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2001; 33: 203-209
        • Rehm S.J.
        Outpatient intravenous antibiotic therapy for infective endocarditis.
        Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1998; 12: 879-901
        • Larioza J.
        • Heung L.
        • Girard A.
        • et al.
        Management of infective endocarditis in outpatients: clinical experience with outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy.
        South Med J. 2009; 102: 575-579
        • Gauthier M.
        • Chevalier I.
        • Sterescu A.
        • et al.
        Treatment of urinary tract infections among febrile young children with daily intravenous antibiotic therapy at a day treatment center.
        Pediatrics. 2004; 114: e469-e476
        • Zorc J.J.
        • Kiddoo D.A.
        • Shaw K.N.
        Diagnosis and management of pediatric urinary tract infections.
        Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005; 18: 417-422
        • Committee on Infectious Diseases
        American Academy of Pediatrics. Treatment of bacterial meningitis.
        Pediatrics. 1988; 81: 904-907
        • McCracken Jr., G.H.
        • Nelson J.D.
        • Kaplan S.L.
        • et al.
        Consensus report: antimicrobial therapy for bacterial meningitis in infants and children.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987; 6: 501-505
        • Kaplan S.L.
        Serious pediatric infections.
        Am J Med. 1990; 88: 185-245
        • Bradley J.S.
        Outpatient antibiotic therapy. Management of serious infections. Part II: amenable infections and models of delivery. Meningitis.
        Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1993; 28: 15-19
        • Waler J.A.
        • Rathore M.H.
        Outpatient management of pediatric bacterial meningitis.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1995; 14: 89-92
        • Gilbert D.N.
        • Dworkin R.J.
        • Raber S.R.
        • et al.
        Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial-drug therapy.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 337: 829-838
        • Neftel K.A.
        Effect of storage of penicillin-G solutions on sensitization to penicillin-G after intravenous administration.
        Lancet. 1982; 1: 986-988
        • O’Sullivan T.L.
        • Ruffing M.J.
        • Lamp K.C.
        • et al.
        Prospective evaluation of red man syndrome in patients receiving vancomycin.
        J Infect Dis. 1993; 168: 773-776
        • Maraqa N.F.
        • Gomez M.M.
        • Rathore M.H.
        • et al.
        Higher occurrence of hepatotoxicity and rash in patients treated with oxacillin compared to those treated with nafcillin and other commonly used antibiotics.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2002; 34: 50-54
        • Bhatt-Mehta V.
        • Schumacher R.E.
        • Faix R.G.
        • et al.
        Lack of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity in newborn infants: a case control study.
        Pediatrics. 1999; 103: e48
        • Sorrell T.C.
        • Collignon P.J.
        A prospective study of adverse reactions associated with vancomycin therapy.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 1985; 16: 235-241
        • Palmer-Toy D.E.
        Therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin.
        Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2000; 124: 322-323
        • James C.W.
        • Guk-Turner C.
        Recommendations for monitoring serum vancomycin concentrations.
        Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001; 14: 189-190
        • Kahyaoglu O.
        • Akpinar M.
        • Nolan B.
        • et al.
        Vancomycin use and monitoring in pediatric patients in a community hospital.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1998; 19: 299-301
        • Lau C.
        Transparent and gauze dressings and their effect on infection rates of central venous catheters: a review of past and current literature.
        J Intraven Nurs. 1996; 19: 240-245
        • Pugliese G.
        Reducing risks of infection during vascular access.
        J Intraven Nurs. 1997; 20: S11-S23
        • Russell P.B.
        • Kline J.
        • Yoder M.C.
        • et al.
        Staphylococcal adherence to polyvinyl chloride and heparin-bonded polyurethane catheters is species dependant and enhanced by fibronectin.
        J Clin Microbiol. 1987; 25: 1083-1087
        • Schleis T.G.
        • Tice A.D.
        Selecting infusion devices for use in ambulatory care.
        Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1996; 53: 868-877
        • Kravitz G.R.
        Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy: management of serious infections. Part 1: Medical socioeconomic, and legal issues: advances in i.v. delivery.
        Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1993; 28: 21-27
        • LaRue G.D.
        Improving central placement rates of peripherally inserted catheters.
        J Intraven Nurs. 1995; 18: 24-27
        • Hussain S.
        • Gomez M.
        • Wludyka P.
        • et al.
        Survival times and complications of catheters used for outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy in children.
        Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2007; 46: 247-251
        • Ruebner R.
        • Karen R.
        • Coffin S.
        • et al.
        Complications of central venous catheters used for the treatment of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis.
        Pediatrics. 2006; 117: 1210-1215
        • Gorski L.A.
        The peripheral intravenous catheter: an appropriate yet often overlooked choice for venous access.
        Home Healthc Nurse. 2009; 27: 130-132
        • Goodwin M.
        • Carlson I.
        The peripherally inserted central catheter.
        J Intraven Nurs. 1993; 16: 92-103
        • Wall J.L.
        • Keirstead V.
        Peripherally inserted central catheters.
        J Intraven Nurs. 1995; 18: 251-255
        • Van Winkle P.
        • Whiffen T.
        • Liu I.
        Experience using peripherally inserted central venous catheters for outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy in children at a community hospital.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008; 27: 1069-1072
      4. PowerPICC®. BARD Access Systems, Inc.Salt Lake City (UT).
        (Avilable at:) (Accessed October 20, 2009)
        • Knue M.
        • Doellman D.
        • Rabin K.
        • et al.
        The efficacy and safety of blood sampling though peripherally inserted central catheter devices in children.
        J Infus Nurs. 2005; 28: 30-35
        • Kaufman J.
        The interventional radiologist’s role in providing and maintaining long-term central venous access.
        J Intraven Nurs. 2001; 24: S23-S27
        • Ng P.K.
        • Ault M.J.
        • Ellrodt A.G.
        • et al.
        Peripherally inserted central catheters in general medicine.
        Mayo Clin Proc. 1997; 72: 225-233
        • Finney R.
        • Albrink M.H.
        • Hart M.G.
        • et al.
        A cost-effective peripheral venous port system placed at the bedside.
        J Surg Res. 1992; 53: 17-19
        • Stovroff M.C.
        • Totten M.
        • Glick P.L.
        PIC lines save money and hasten discharge in the care of children with ruptured appendicitis.
        J Pediatr Surg. 1994; 29: 245-247
        • Thiagarajan R.
        • Ramamoorthy C.
        • Gettman T.
        • et al.
        Survey of the use of peripherally inserted central venous catheters in children.
        Pediatrics. 1997; 99: e4
        • Frey A.
        Pediatric peripherally inserted central catheter program report: a summary of 4536 catheter days.
        J Intraven Nurs. 1995; 18: 280-291
        • O’Grady N.P.
        • Alexander M.
        • Dellinger E.P.
        • et al.
        Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002; 51: 1-29
        • Jackson D.
        Infection control principles and practices in the care and management of vascular access devices in the alternate care setting.
        J Intraven Nurs. 2001; 24: S28-S34
        • Siegel J.D.
        • Rhinehart E.
        • Jackson M.
        • et al.
        and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings.
        (Avilable at:) (Accessed September 21, 2010)
      5. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Revised Bloodborne Pathogens Standard.
        (Avilable at:) (Accessed October 20, 2009)
        • Mermel L.A.
        • Farr B.M.
        • Sheretz R.J.
        • et al.
        Guidelines for the management of intravascular catheter-related infections.
        J Intraven Nurs. 2001; 24: 180-205
        • Tice A.D.
        The team concept.
        Hosp Pract. 1993; 28: 6-10
        • Kaye T.
        Prolonged infusion times with disposable elastomeric infusion devices.
        Am J Hosp Pharm. 1994; 51: 533-534
        • Rich D.S.
        Evaluation of a disposable, elastomeric infusion device in the home environment.
        Am J Hosp Pharm. 1992; 49: 1712-1716
        • Coley S.C.
        • Shaw P.K.
        • Leff R.D.
        Performance of three portable infusion-pump devices set to deliver 2 ml/hr.
        Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1997; 54: 1277-1280
        • Veal D.F.
        • Altman C.E.
        • McKinnon B.T.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of flow rates for six disposable infusion devices.
        Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1995; 52: 500-504
        • Ingram P.R.
        • Sulaiman Z.
        • Chua A.
        • et al.
        Comment on: outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT): is it safe for selected patients to self-administer at home? A retrospective analysis of a large cohort over 13 years.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008; 61: 226-227
        • Kwan V.
        High-technology IV infusion devices.
        Am J Hosp Pharm. 1989; 46: 320-335
        • New P.B.
        • Swanson G.F.
        • Bulich R.G.
        • et al.
        Ambulatory antibiotic infusion devices: extending the spectrum of outpatient therapies.
        Am J Med. 1991; 91: 455-461
        • Rich D.
        Physicians, pharmacists, and home infusion antibiotic therapy.
        Am J Med. 1994; 97: 3-8
        • Kappeler K.H.
        • Bridwell S.W.
        • Scheckelhoff D.J.
        • et al.
        Model for evaluating costs associated with i.v. drug delivery systems.
        Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1993; 49: 1478-1481
        • Kunkel M.J.
        Quality assurance and outcomes in outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy.
        Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1998; 12: 1023-1034
        • Joint Commission
        2009 Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Home Care (CAMHC).
        (Avilable at:) (Accessed October 19, 2009)
        • Nathwani D.
        • Tice A.D.
        Ambulatory antimicrobial use: the value of an outcomes registry.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002; 49: 149-154