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Advances in Pediatrics

Update on Nutritional Recommendations for the Pediatric Patient

      In the last several years there have been several reports with new nutritional recommendations for infants and children. These reports have included new ideas on how to prevent the development of atopic disease that suggest that the established practices of restricting the introduction of complementary foods to infants may promote atopic disease [
      • Greer F.R.
      • Sicherer S.H.
      • Burks A.W.
      Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition and Section on Allergy and Immunology.
      ]. There are new recommendations for iron supplementation for infants and toddlers that point out the importance of introducing iron-rich complementary foods much earlier in the diet of infants, particularly if they are exclusively breastfed [
      • Baker R.D.
      • Greer F.R.
      Diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0–3 years). American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition.
      ]. There are also new recommendations for increased supplements of vitamin D for infants, children, and adolescents [
      • Wagner C.L.
      • Greer F.R.
      Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition, Section on Breastfeeding.
      ,
      • Ross A.C.
      • Taylor C.L.
      • Yaktine A.L.
      • et al.
      Dietary reference intakes for calcium vitamin D. Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intake for Vitamin D and Calcium, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine.
      ]. In addition, there are new recommended nutritional guidelines for children at risk for overweight hypercholesterolemia [
      • Daniels R.
      • Greer F.R.
      Lipid screening and cardiovascular health in childhood.
      ], and a new American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) statement that questions the benefits of the addition of probiotics and prebiotics to the diet of healthy children [
      • Thomas D.W.
      • Greer F.R.
      Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics. Clinical report. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition, and Section on Gastroenterology and Nutrition.
      ]. These new recommendations are reviewed in this article for pediatric health care providers.
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