Advertisement
Advances in Pediatrics

Better Transportation to Health Care Will Improve Child Health and Lower Costs

      Availability of transportation is essential for timely access to health care services.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Advances in Pediatrics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. US Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality (AHRQ). National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report, 2014. 2015. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhqdr14/2014nhqdr.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

      2. U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Transportation disadvantaged populations: nonemergency medical transportation not well coordinated, and additional federal leadership needed. 2014. Available at: http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667362.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

        • Wallace R.
        • Hughes-Cromwick P.
        • Mull H.
        • et al.
        Access to health care and nonemergency medical transportation: two missing links.
        in: Transportation Research Record: journal of the transportation research board no. 1924. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC2005: 76-84
        • Grant R.
        • Johnson D.
        • Borders S.
        • et al.
        The health transportation shortage index: the development and validation of a new tool to identify underserved communities.
        Children’s Health Fund, New York2012 (Available at:) (Accessed December 14, 2015)
        • Silver D.
        • Blustein J.
        • Weitzman B.C.
        Transportation to clinic: findings from a pilot clinic-based survey of low-income suburbanites.
        J Immigr Minor Health. 2012; 14: 350-355
      3. Roberto E. Commuting to opportunity: the working poor and commuting in the United States. Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings. Available at: https://web.stanford.edu/group/scspi/_media/pdf/key_issues/transportation_policy.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

      4. United States Department of Transportation. Moving people. Available at: http://www.rita.dot.gov/bts/sites/rita.dot.gov.bts/files/ch2_tsar2012_0.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

        • Arcury T.A.
        • Preisser J.S.
        • Gester W.M.
        • et al.
        Access to transportation and health care utilization in a rural region.
        J Rural Health. 2005; 21: 31-38
      5. Brown D. Rural transportation at a glance. Agriculture information bulletin # 795. 2005. Available at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aib795/aib795_lowres.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

      6. TRIP: A national transportation research group. Rural connections: challenges and opportunities in America’s Heartland. 2015. Available at: http://www.tripnet.org/docs/Rural_Roads_TRIP_Report_May_2015.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

        • McLafferty S.L.
        GIS and health care.
        Annu Rev Public Health. 2003; 24: 25-42
        • Higgs G.
        A literature review of the use of GIS-based measures of access to health care services.
        Health Serv Outcomes Res Methodol. 2004; 5: 119-139
        • McGrail M.R.
        • Humphreys J.S.
        • Ward B.
        Accessing doctors at times of need–measuring the distance tolerance of rural residents for health-related travel.
        BMC Health Serv Res. 2015; 15: 212
        • Liu J.
        Health professional shortage and health status and health care access.
        J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007; 18: 590-598
      7. National Rural Health Association. Health care workforce distribution and shortage issues in rural America. Available at: http://www.ruralhealthweb.org/index.cfm?objectid=3D776162-3048-651A-FEA70F1F09670B0D. Accessed December 14, 2015.

      8. Bureau of Health Workforce. Health resources and services administration (HRSA). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Designated health professional shortage areas, statistics as of December 3, 2015. Available at: https://ersrs.hrsa.gov/ReportServer?/HGDW_Reports/BCD_HPSA/BCD_HPSA_SCR50_Smry&rs:Format=PDF (cached). Accessed December 7, 2015.

      9. National Association of Community Health Centers (NACHC). A sketch of community health centers: chartbook, December 2014. Available at: www.nachc.com/client/Chartbook_2014.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

      10. NACHC. The role of health centers in lowering preventable emergency department use. Fact sheet, July 2015. Available at: https://www.nachc.com/client/documents/ED_FS_20151.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

      11. NACHC. Removing barriers to care: community health centers in rural areas. Fact sheet, October 2013. Available at: https://www.nachc.com/client/documents/Rural%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%20November%202011.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

        • Yang S.
        • Zarr R.L.
        • Kass-Hout T.A.
        • et al.
        Transportation barriers to accessing health care for urban children.
        J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2006; 17: 928-943
        • Samuels R.C.
        • Ward V.L.
        • Melvin P.
        • et al.
        Missed appointments: factors contributing to high no-show rates in an urban pediatrics primary care clinic.
        Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2015; 54: 976-982
        • Perry T.T.
        • Vargas P.A.
        • McCracken A.
        • et al.
        Underdiagnosed and uncontrolled asthma: findings in rural schoolchildren in the Delta region of Arkansas.
        Ann Allergy. 2008; 101: 375-381
        • Grant R.
        • Ramgoolam A.
        • Betz R.
        • et al.
        Challenges to accessing pediatric health care in the Mississippi Delta: a survey of emergency department patients seeking non-urgent care.
        J Prim Care Community Health. 2010; 1: 152-157
        • Grant R.
        • Gracy D.
        • Goldsmith G.
        • et al.
        Transportation barriers to child health care access remain after health reform.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2014; 168: 386
        • Syed S.T.
        • Gerber B.S.
        • Sharp L.K.
        Traveling towards disease: transportation barriers to health care access.
        J Community Health. 2013; 38: 976-993
        • Zgibor J.C.
        • Gieraltowski L.B.
        • Talbott E.O.
        • et al.
        The association between driving distance and glycemic control in rural areas.
        J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2011; 5: 494-500
        • Peipins L.A.
        • Graham S.
        • Young R.
        • et al.
        Time and distance barriers to mammography facilities in the Atlanta area.
        J Community Health. 2011; 36: 675-683
        • Liem R.L.
        • O'Suoji C.
        • Kingsberry P.S.
        • et al.
        Access to patient-centered medical homes in children with sickle cell disease.
        Matern Child Health J. 2014; 18: 1854-1862
        • Cohen S.D.
        • Sharma T.
        • Acquaviva K.
        • et al.
        Social support and chronic kidney disease: an update.
        Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2007; 14: 335-344
        • Baren J.M.
        • Shofer F.S.
        • Ivey B.
        • et al.
        A randomized, controlled trial of a simple emergency department intervention to improve the rate of primary care follow-up for patients with acute asthma exacerbations.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2001; 38: 115-122
        • Wroth T.H.
        • Pathman D.E.
        Primary medication adherence in a rural population: the role of the patient-physician relationship and satisfaction with care.
        J Am Board Fam Med. 2006; 19: 478-486
        • Hughes-Cromwick P.
        • Wallace R.
        • Mull H.
        • et al.
        Cost benefit analysis of providing non-emergency medical transportation.
        Transportation Research Board; The National Academies, Washington, DC2005 (Altarum Institute. Contractor’s final report. Available at:) (Accessed December 14, 2015)
        • Anderson G.
        Chronic care: making the case for ongoing care.
        Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Princeton (NJ)2010 (Available at:) (Accessed December 14, 2015)
      12. Federal Transit Administration, Transportation Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). Research Results Digest 109: impact of the Affordable Care Act on non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT): assessment for transit agencies. Available at: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rrd_109.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

        • Thomas L.V.
        • Wedel K.R.
        Nonemergency medical transportation and health care visits among chronically ill urban and rural Medicaid beneficiaries.
        Soc Work Public Health. 2014; 29: 629-639
        • Kim J.
        • Norton E.C.
        • Stearns S.C.
        Transportation brokerage services and Medicaid beneficiaries’ access to care.
        Health Serv Res. 2009; 44: 145-161
        • Laditka J.N.
        • Laditka S.B.
        • Probst J.C.
        Health care access in rural areas: evidence that hospitalization for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions in the United States may increase with the level of rurality.
        Health Place. 2009; 15: 761-770
        • Cross-Call J.
        • Solomon J.
        Approved demonstrations offer lessons for states seeking to expand Medicaid through waivers.
        Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC2014 (Available at:) (Accessed December 14, 2015)
      13. State of Iowa. Iowa Health and Wellness Plan: NEMT Waiver Amendment. 2014. Available at: http://dhs.iowa.gov/sites/default/files/IA_NEMT_WaiverAmendment090414.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

      14. Musumeci M, Rudowitz R. The ACA and Medicaid expansion waivers. Kaiser Family Foundation commission on Medicaid and the uninsured. 2015. Available at: http://files.kff.org/attachment/issue-brief-the-aca-and-medicaid-expansion-waivers. Accessed December 14, 2015.

      15. Borders S. The Children’s Health Fund’s Health Transportation Shortage Index (HTSI): a new measure of accessability. Grand Valley State University. Available at: http://faculty.gvsu.edu/borderss/HTSI_Final_Draft.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

        • Ferrell C.E.
        The benefits of transit in the United States: a review and analysis of benefit-cost studies.
        Mineta Transportation Institute, 2015 (Available at:) (Accessed December 14, 2015)
      16. National Center for Transit Research (NCTR). Cost-benefit analysis of rural and small urban transit. 2014. Available at: http://www.nctr.usf.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/77060-NCTR-NDSU03.pdf (cached). Accessed December 14, 2015.

      17. Community Transportation Association of America (CTAA). Medicaid expansion and premium assistance: the importance of non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) to coordinated care for chronically Ill patients. 2014. Available at: http://web1.ctaa.org/webmodules/webarticles/articlefiles/NEMTreportfinal.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

      18. Burkhardt JE, Koffman D, Murray G. Economic benefits of coordinating human service transportation and transit services. TCRP. Available at: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_91.pdf (cached). Accessed December 14, 2015.

      19. Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations (AAPCHO) and NACHC. Highlighting the role of enabling services at community health centers: collecting data to support service expansion & enhanced funding. 2010. Available at: https://www.nachc.com/client/Enabling_Services.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

      20. Aaron E. Henry Community Health Service Center, Inc. Delta Area Rural Transit System (DARTS). Available at: https://www.aehchc.org/darts/. Accessed December 14, 2015.

      21. HRSA. Comparison of the rural health clinic and federally qualified health center programs. 2006. Available at: http://www.hrsa.gov/ruralhealth2/policy/confcall/comparisonguide.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.

        • Cheung P.T.
        • Wiler J.L.
        • Lowe R.A.
        • et al.
        National study of barriers to timely primary care and emergency department utilization among Medicaid recipients.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2012; 60: 4-10
      22. GAO. Fragmentation, overlap, and duplication: an evaluation and management guide. 2015. Available at: www.gao.gov/assets/670/669612.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2015.